Glossary

Narcolepsy
A neurological disorder characterized by the brain's inability to control sleep/wakefulness cycles
Excessive daytime sleepiness
A neurological disorder in which there is a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.
Racetams
A class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. Some, such as piracetam, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants.
Neurotransmitter
A chemical that is released from a nerve cell and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, effects the transfer of the impulse to another nerve.
Nootropic
Medicines, supplements, and other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Eugeroics
A class of psychoactive drugs that reduce the need for sleep. Medically used to treat sleeping disorders,. they're claimed to deliver an alert and wakeful state that feels natural without the side effects of earlier types of stimulant.
Blood-brain Barrier
A protective network of blood vessels and cells that filters blood flowing to the brain.
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger) that helps in the transmission of signals in the brain and and different nerve cells.
Modafinil
A synthetic central nervous system stimulant with wakefulness-promoting activity first approved by the FDA in 1998 for the treatment of narcolepsy.
Methylphenidate
A synthetic drug that stimulates the sympathetic and central nervous systems, used chiefly to improve mental activity in attention deficit disorder.
Amphetamine
A sympathomimetic amine C9H13N or one of its derivatives (as dextroamphetamine or methamphetamine) that has a stimulant effect on the central nervous system. Amphetamine can be both physically and psychologically addictive.

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